Appendix B. ExC Application in example
According to our research, decentralized social network (DSN) can be considered as best example of ExtraChain technology integration. All social networks (SNs), that are in use in different countries and social groups, are tightly integrated in everyday life of such social groups. Users build their life routine via social networks, they:
- Contact each other via messengers;
- search and retrieve valuable information from public posts;
- look for common thoughts and form socially active groups;
- Buy and sell their goods and services;
For many SN-users, social networks become high-priority work platforms:
- Digital artists;
They are independent groups of creators, who require more direct contact between content producer and content consumer.
But popular and widely used social networks have not so much to offer such type of users:
- Slow feature development;
- Low personal data security;
- No, very simple or inaccessible value exchange instruments (trade platforms, payment systems etc.);
- High censorship probability;
Content creators need to use many platforms to build successful SN-business and/or develop their own personal brand. For example, photographer and artist can use Instagram or Facebook to popularize their works and then direct fans and interested users to Patreon, where exclusive content is sold. This production chain seems to work good, but social network with integrated monetization system (leveled subscription, direct sale of content etc.) grab and hold user attention more effectively, up to 45%.
All these problems made social request for new type of social network architecture: all-in-one instrument, built on community ideas and rules, controlled by clear algorithms and collective decisions.
So, ideal social network must be:
- Decentralized – data storage and user interactions must be peer-to-peer;
- Personalized – each user must have instruments to be successful in SN-business;
- Understandable – social network parts must be simple and native for users;
- Changeable – user must have instruments to affect network state (voting, ranking system etc.);
- Universal – network must include such tech and social decisions, that can be useful for different groups of content creators (different content production and delivery methods, varied monetization plans);
All these requests can be fulfilled with two main technologies: blockchain and decentralized file storage. Let’s take a closer look at ExC-based solution.
ExC Blockchain usage
In social network, blockchain can be used in various ways:
- Security instrument (authorization, verification);
- Personal data protector;
- Authenticity verifier;
- Universal access key distributor;
- Proof-of-Ownership guarantor;
- Value exchange provider;
At ExC-based social network, each possible blockchain application is implementable and have its own place.
Let’s start with:
As other blockchain-based networks, ExC social network uses authorization via private/public keypair and identification via user id made from keypair.
This gives high level of privacy and protection from personal data phishing, network activity and transaction scan. Also it creates a basis for implementation of higher levels of security, including personal data security in distributed file system and data exchange channels security.
ExC implements Elliptic Curves Cryptography and Diffie-Hellman key distribution algorithm. This approach allows implementations of two possible scenarios:
- Main asymmetric key security (general authorization, transaction verification, ExDFS actions authorization);
- Session symmetric key security (chat security, content streaming security etc.);
The best example of session key usage is social network chat.
Session key is created at chat initialization and is distributed by chat creator to all chat participants via Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm, to ensure that only participants will receive session key. Each new user joined receives key in invitation network packet. When user leaves, chat participants save old session key and generate new one, to ensure that new chat interactions will not be accessible for former participants.
So, private/public keypair is universal key for all possible interactions in ExC-based social network.
Other main usage of ExC blockchain is:
Blockchain can be used as verifier of “Ownership” and “Transfer of Ownership” procedure. Fungible or non-fungible tokens can be implemented via ExC Token Module to reflect all possible interactions between users of social networks.
This can be:
- Trade operations (digital art, photos, real-world goods etc.);
- Community rewards and tokens (useful for bloggers and streamers for community events and challenges);
- Internal value providers for ExC-based products;
- NFTs, depicting real-life objects and goods for automated and manual auctions;
- NFTs, encoding digital art objects;
Each transaction in ExC blockchain is secured by previously named algorithms and is protected blockchain transparency, thus it is not possible to issue fake NFTs or tokens.
And no social network features are possible without data exchange between users. This way we move to ExDFS and the role of this technology in social network.
ExDFS is a distributed file system that is core feature and main advantage of all-in-one decision, offered by ExtraChain DAO Framework.
All data in social network can be grouped by user id and type of content and organized in directory tree. Each “tree” is supported by “card file”. This files contain file path and name with hashed value of file. And each hash is made from hash of previously created file and value of current file. This way all files in user directory save their consistency and order.
File hash creation
Each newly created file receives its own small history of changes organized in chained structure via hashes, same way as main “card file”. This history of changes is called Historical Chain, as explained at ExDFS page. So, allowed users can see file history of changes and use this feature in different situations as, for example, restoring own deleted messages.
Messenger module of social network is built completely around Historical Chain. As it was said before, each unit of stored data is file. In ExC-based social network, messaging history is stored in Historical Chain structure, in secured and consistent way. Unauthorized changes are not possible, because Historical Chains are going through collective approve process, same as ordinary transactions in main ExC blockchain. The only difference is proving rules:
- user must have right to change file;
- change must be in right position relative to other changes;
- hash must be true;
If change is correct and is approved by randomly chosen approver nodes, the change is added to Historical Chain and chat participants receive new message.
ExtraChain DAO Framework offers new approach to decentralized applications architecture and development, based on two main technologies: ExC blockchain and ExDFS. First one offers distributed approach to user interactions in the network (trading, voting, value production and consumption) and second one offers distributed approach to storage architecture and development of a product. ExtraChain gives opportunity to build small and big communities based on ideas of cooperation, equality and public voting, which leads to healthy and strong interactions between all parts of user-made organizations and communities.